Beyond the Asteroid belt of our Solar system , This region is dominated by Four Giant Gas planets

solar system, planets


Temperature is a measure of the particle kinetic energy , the higher the temperature of a gas ,the higher the kinetic energy and therefore the velocity of the molecules of a gas.This is the simplest explanation regarding the molecules of the gas.Therefore cold planets that are far from sun generally have low gas particle velocity . Among all molecules at any given temperature ,the lightest ones will have the fastest moving molecule. On average ,Helium will rank the second fastest. Combining these ideas , We can predict that Hydrogen and Helium are the most likely gas to escape from a planet,and can only be retained by the largest and coldest planets.


We can actually predict roughly how big such a body should be .First , we estimate how the temperature of a planet varies with distance from Sun .For instance Jupiter is 5.2 AU from the Sun

Let us apprehend the Jupiter’s distance to render the conclusion that states that distance regulates temperature.

(1/5.2)^2 = 1/2*7 of the radiation Earth receive

According to Stefan – Boltzmann Law,

Temperature is related to the radiation received by the body

S is directly proportional to T^4

T = S^1/4.

So the temperature is ,

(1/2*7)^1/4 = 0.44 times the relation to radiation received by S is directly proportional to T^4. Therefore

T is directly proportional to S^1/4

Henceforth the temperature of the body is  293*0.44 = 128 K.

According to the Kinetic theory of Matter,

Kinetic energy of an average atom = 1/2 mv^2.

= 3/2 kt

1/2mv^2 = 3/2 kt

v = 1/T

Therefore the temperature of the planet varies with the distance from the Sun.


Jupiter is considered as the King of the planets .Jupiter was named after the Roman God Jupiter because of its humongous size.But now technically speaking Jupiter can be considered as the protector in many respects , it is because of the presence of Jupiter Earth has been safeguarded from many asteroid issues and such.Jupiter is also the Second brightest planet on the Sky. The presence of powerful gravitational pull affects the entire solar system. Jupiter plays a pivotal role on diverting comets , creating gaps in the Asteroid belt, and capturing passing bodies.Jupiter is banded by turbulent , brightly colored clouds in constant motion.


The Great Red spot is an oval storm system which has been existing for at least 330 years .The great red spot was first reported by G.D Cassini in 1665.The smaller transient spots are probably hurricane like systems .Jupiter can be considered as the planet with loads of atmospheric surprises.Jupiter radiates 1.5-2 times the energy it recieves from the Sun.Excess leftover from formation from the cooling cake model.


Galielien moons

The Galilean moons of Jupiter are

  • Io
  • Europa
  • Ganymede
  • Callisto


Volcanic activity adds about 10 cm of new materials to the surface each year of this Moon.Io is an intensive volcanic evaluated moon where volcanism apparently evaporated and blown away all the H2O content. Sulfur compounds become the dominant particles


Europa was named after the Lover of Zeus . Europa is completely filled with frozen ice , this moon has been considered as a candidate for terra forming  as well.NASA is currently working on two missions to the icy world ., AS SUCH the Europa clipper and the Europa Lander.


Ganymede has the diameter of 5262 KM . this has been considered as 8% bigger than the planet Mercury . The Ganymede has been named after the Greek mythological character who was the cup bearer to the Greek gods and also the lover of Zeus .Ganymede has a thin atmosphere of O2 and O3.


Callisto is the biggest moon of Jupiter which was also named after Zeus’s lovers .Callisto has been a heavily cratered , and the oldest landscape to present in our Solar system.Some craters may also be flooded with pure like Valhalla.Not the Nordic idea of course .Valhalla is one of the  largest impact craters on any world .It stretches 4000 KM across the face of Callisto ,and the center is filled with bright ice that flooded the original crater.Callisto has a subsurface ocean at depths below 100 KM ,making it another of the Solar system’s water world.


Saturn’s ring structure is very complex . Scientist had expected that the rings would be relatively smooth and uniform ,but they were wrong .The widest gap on the ring system is called as the Cassini division which was named after the Italian astronomer Giovanni Domentico Cassini ,he was also the one who discovered Saturn’s moon. Saturns ring particle are bright reflective piece of ice .Right from the size of golf ball to house sized.Saturn radiates 2-3 times of the energy it receives from the sun.Excess comes from frictional heating from raining liquid Helium.


Saturn has two moons named ,

  •  Titan
  • Encleadus



This small icy moon has an orbit closer to Saturn than Encleadus and its elliptical orbit causes it to experience more tidal force.


Encleadus is the modest sized inner satellite of the Saturn  which was initially discovered by William Herschel.It reflects over 90% of the sunlight striking on it..Encleadus surface consists of unusual combination of old, cratered terrain which is also smooth.


Uranus was discovered by an Amateur astronomer William Herschel .Uranus  receives 400 times less sunlight .The magnetic field is also an anomaly.Its angular tilt is quite tipsy which is considered as a very important aspect of Uranus.It has small rock core surrounded by an atmosphere of primarily Hydrogen and Helium ,but also Ammonia , Methane and hydrocarbon.Uranus has rings made of ice and dust which can be considered as possessing loads of natural satellites .Uranus radiates 2.06 times the energy it receives from sun .Excess left from formation.


All of the Uranus moon are named after the works of Shakespeare and Alexander pope . Actually Uranus has a whopping 27 different moons specifically speaking ,but the most prominent ones are considered as follows.They are ,


Miranda is a small moon about 470 KM across.It is also considered as a scientifically inert moon. this moon was initially discovered by  a planetary scientist named Gerald Kuiper. The outer surface is heavily cratered and this moon also possess unique swaths of younger ,ridged ,fractured terrain.Miranda has a very mysterious history.


Ariel has a very cratered terrain.It has a very complex surface analytics consisting of many swats ,canyons and such..This  moon is considered as the second smallest moon right after Miranda and the one who is orbiting the planet closely as well..The surface of this moon shows recent geological activity largely due to Tidal heating.


Umbriel consist mostly of ice with a substantial fraction of rock and can also be considered as having an icy mantle and rocky core .The diameter of this moon is 210 KM. Umbriel is the second most heavily cratered moon after oberon.


Titania is the largest moon of Uranus and eight largest moon in the solar system.It consist of equal amounts of rocks and ice  and is differentiated to posses a rocky core and an icy mantle.The surface of Titania is completely filled with canyons and scarps to be precise.


Oberon is the outermost moon of the Uranus moon systems.A layer of liquid water can be found on the ridge of the core and mantle.This moon is prominently covered with numerous impact craters around 210 KM in diameter.


Neptune takes 165 KM of our years to complete one Neptunian year.It is the smallest of the gas giants . The blue color is due to excessive content of Methane in the Neptunian atmosphere .Neptune’s largest satellite ,Triton was discovered just one month after the discovery of the planet


Triton is considered as the most exotic satellite in the planets satellite system .It was discovered by British Astronomer William Lassel in 1846. Triton was named after the Greek god of Seas weapon .Triton moves around the Planet in Retrograde motion ,it also posess sparse atmospheric pressure and is also the coldest planetary body with a temperature of 38 K.


Pluto was a planet with the density of 2000 Kgm^-3. Pluto was demoted to the status of a dwarf planet in 2006.Henceforth Pluto is not considered as a planet nowadays ,that’s kinda sad ….But Pluto is actually placed in the outermost region of our solar system known as the Kuiper belt . Pluto has five moons namely Charon,Styx , Nix, kerberos,Hydra.






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