Astronomy is one of the oldest and most prevailing science, and its history shows us a growing realization of our insignificant and mundane status in a vast and ancient universe. Our sole purpose of existence draws over the idea of Birth and Death which is a brief state as in the case of the eternal abyss.


the glorious gloom

Hello and Welcome to Learn Immense where you can find possible answers to all the questions ever asked. So today let us all learn about the physical aspects of our Night sky.We all know how our Night sky looks like gloomy, serene and all.But In order to navigate through that abyss ,we must identify the most important physical aspects that it comprises of .Navigating through the starry night is quite simple identify the primal directions .


By studying the Earth and the Moon, scientists were able to piece together their linked histories. Our Earth and its satellite are a double system that formed 4.6 billion years ago. The Moon originated during a gigantic mass collision in the late stages of planetary formation after the Earth’s iron core has formed. The Moon formed close to the Earth from all the ejected debris material, and it has been slowly moving outward in its orbit ever since, due to tidal forces. The age of the Earth-Moon system is measured using the technique of radioactive decay. This well-understood physical process also provides the energy that probably drives most of the Earth’s geological evolution.


               The first person to correctly explain the phases of the Moon is lost in history. Pythagoras wrote in 600 BC,the Ancient Greeks know that Moon is spherical and that it revolves around the Earth.The first astronomer who observed the Moon was Thomas Harriot in 1609.The Moon was named according to the published works of system of names by Jesuit Astronomer Giovanni Batista.

      Moon is a very dry planet according to the rocks and samples from the Apollo mission,admittedly collected from particularly arid areas.Moon is deficient in Iron compared to Earth.And also Deficient in H2O and other volatile compounds.                                                                                                                                                



 The gravity of the Earth possibly attracts our Moon towards the Earth and keeps it in orbit around the Earth due to conversive cancellation. But gravity is a mutually attractive force. So the Moon is also attracting the Earth. So the force is equally quantifiable. Since the force of gravity depends on the inverse square of the distance, the side of the Earth-facing the Moon has a stronger force pulling toward the Moon than the opposite side, because it is closer to the Moon. The two unequal forces cause a net stretching force along the Earth-Moon axis, called a tidal force. Tidal forces occur at any time when there is a difference between the gravity on the two sides of a celestial body caused by the attraction of another body. The actual effect is to stretch the whole planet into a slightly football-like shape. This elongation of the solid Earth is very subtle; it results in a difference in the radii at the poles and the equator.

Let us try to understand the Tidal force in the following equations

     Let us consider that,

                            G – Numerical constant

                             S,E,M – Sun, Earth, Moon

   The force of Gravity caused by the sun on Earth is,

                           F(SE) = G Ms Me/(Rse)^2.

  The force of gravity caused by Moon on Earth is,

                           F(ME) = G Mm Me/(Rme)^2.

F(SE)/F(ME) = G Ms Me/(Rse)^2/G Mm Me/(Rme)^2.

 on cancelling the above equation , the simplified equation can be idealised as follows,

                   = (Ms/Mm)(Rme/Rse)^2.

now on considering the above rendered fraction on the force of gravity caused on the respective celestial bodies.

Ms = 2.0*10^30 kg.

Mm= 7.4*10^22 kg

Rse =1.5*10^8 km.

Rme = 3.8*10^5 km

Substituting the above arrived numerical values of the force fractionals

       Fse/Fme = ((2.0*10^30)/(7.4*10^22))((1.5*10^8)/3.8*10^5))^2

                        = 173.                    

Approximation for the strength of the tidal force by taking the gravity force we have just calculated.

Let us consider ,

           D (e) – Diameter of the Earth.

D(e)/Rse = 12700/1.5 *10^8 

                   = 127*10^3/1.5*10^8

                   = 8.5*10^5.

For the stretching of Moon on Earth we got,

 D(e)/Rme = 12700 /38400

                     = 0.033.

            The above result concludes that Tidal force is a universal consequence of Newton’s Law of Gravity , and we can see its effect throughout the Universe.



The study of astronomy in general, and our Solar System in particular, is at its heart an attempt to understand the world around us. Although we may never step foot on Mars, the information we gain from studying other planets can illuminate our own lives and also the history of the planet we live on.

Where did we come from? Why are we here? Where are we going? Are we alone? Human beings have asked these sort of questions for many centuries. Some of the answers can be found by studying the origins of the Solar System (where we came from), learning the history of Earth (why we’re here), and using that information to speculate about the future of our planet and of life in general (where we’re going). Recent evaluative analysis of extra solar planets have expanded our idea of exploration — even if we are never able to find evidence for life elsewhere in this Solar System, we may also not be alone in the universe. Our growing understanding of the solar system has allowed us to cast off ancient, limited views of our home, and realize that we live in a much larger cosmic environment.



 The inner Solar System has four terrestrial planets promptly composed of rocky and metallic materials. Mercury is small and appears similar to the Earth’s Moon. Venus is roughly Earth’s size. Venus which was also regarded as our sister planet has experienced significant geological activity, which has resurfaced the planet because of volcanic molten and concealed most of the evidence of bombardment from space. Mars has the most possible earth-like environment, but even that’s a cold, frozen desert with only a thin atmosphere of mainly CO2. Researchers found that Mars has abundant water content, but it’s acted in the forms of three .i.e., polar ice, underground permafrost, and water molecules inside hydrated minerals. The other four giant planets — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune — and their respective satellite systems also show some systematic similarities and differences. All four of the giant planets have dense, cloudy and toxic atmospheres, which range from 63% to 93% hydrogen by mass, with the rest being prominently helium.


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